Timeline of Empire of Liberty


March 1775 – George Washington receives the technology and unification mission from the Stranger.

March 6, 1775 – Raghunathrao, Peshwa of the Maratha Empire in India, signs the Treaty of Surat with British Governor-General Warren Hastings in Bombay, ceding the territories of Salsette and Bassein to the British East India Company, along with part of the revenues from Surat and Bharuch districts, in return for military assistance. This leads to the First Anglo-Maratha War, fought between the British and the Marathas, ending with the Treaty of Salbai in 1782.

April 18-19, 1775 – Paul Revere’s ride and the Battles of Lexington and Concord spark the American Revolutionary War.

May 10, 1775 – 2nd Continental Congress meets. Washington appointed commander of continental army.

June 17, 1775 – Battle of Bunker Hill

July 18, 1775 – Quebec and Nova Scotia join the 2nd Continental Congress expanding the revolution into Canada.

July 1775 – The Great Jamaica Revolt marks the beginning of the spread of the revolution to the Caribbean.

July 1775 – The English Harbor revolt results in the rebellion of much of the British Leeward Islands and neutralizes the threat of the Royal Navy’s powerful Leeward Islands Station.

August 19, 1775 – A delegation from Newfoundland arrives at the Congress.

July 20, 1775 – The Bahamas sends the first Caribbean delegates to the Congress.

July 23, 1775 – A delegation from St. John’s Island [Prince Edward Island] arrives in Philadelphia marking the full inclusion of Canada into the rebellion.

September 28, 1775 – The 2nd Continental Congress creates the Continental Navy under the command of Commodore William Briggs.

October 1775 – Guy Carleton is appointed the commander of the Continental Army of Canada.

October 28, 1775 – Delegates from the Cayman Islands arrive in Philadelphia marking almost the full inclusion of the British Caribbean into the revolution (except Tobago, Bermuda, and British Central America).

January 1, 1776 – Evacuating Royal troops burn the Virginian port of Norfolk.

January 10, 1776 – Thomas Paine publishes “Common Sense”

January 1776 – New Hampshire becomes the first state to ratify its own state constitution.

March 17, 1776 – Royal troops evacuate Boston.

April 1776 – The 2nd Continental Congress creates the Continental Army of the Caribbean though its role in the war will be minimal.

May 7, 1776 – The delegation from Jamaica proposes a formal declaration of independence from Great Britain.

July 15, 1776 – The Declaration of Independence is formally adopted marking this the first American Independence Day.

August 12, 1776 – Admiral Rodney’s Royal Navy fleet captures the Bahamanian capital of Nassau.

October 1776 – British troops under Sir William Howe capture New York City.

November 1776 – British troops under Sir Henry Clinton take Savannah, Georgia.

November 1776 – The British army in New York moves south and captures Princeton and Trenton, securing most of New Jersey for the Crown.

December 1776 – Thomas Paine publishes “The American Crisis

December 3, 1776 – In a stunning result, the makeshift American fleet under Commodore Briggs defeats the Royal Navy under Admiral Rodney at the Battle of the Windward Passage.

January 15, 1777 – The isolated strip of northeast New York declares itself the Vermont Republic though it exists in opposition to Britain and in quasi-alliance with the United States.

February 1777 – British troops under Clinton invade and capture most of South Carolina, defeating an American army at the Battle of Camden.

April 1777 – Admiral Rodney takes Charleston from the sea, securing all of South Carolina for the Crown.

April 1777 – Howe defeats Washington at the Battle of Cheltenham prompting the Continental Congress to evacuate Philadelphia.

April 27, 1777 – Howe’s army occupies Philadelphia.

June 1777 – Sir Archibald Campbell moves an army north from New York towards Quebec, taking the city of Albany and the great fortress of Ticonderoga.

June 14, 1777 – The Congress formally adopts the Continental Tricolor as the national flag: a vertical blue strip filled with 32 white stars and flanked by white and red horizontal stripes.

July 22, 1777 – Campbell defeats Carleton at the Battle of Montreal, taking the city for the Crown. This creates a narrow salient allowing Britain to communicate and resupply isolated forces in the interior of North America.

September 5, 1777 – Sir John Burgoyne leads an army from New York into Connecticut in an invasion of New England.

October 1777 – British officers based in Detroit begin encouraging Indian raids against settlers along the frontier.

October 20, 1777 – Washington decisively defeats Howe at the Battle of Brandywine as Howe attempts to invade Maryland.

October 24, 1777 – Howe defeats Washington at the Battle of Philadelphia when the Americans attempt to retake the city. The defeat at Brandywine and narrow defense of Philadelphia result in Howe’s inability to conduct offensive actions.

October 31, 1777 – Benedict Arnold defeats and forces the surrender of Burgoyne’s army at the Battle of Hartford.

November 1777 – Admiral Samuel Hood begins his “island hopping” campaign across the Windward Islands.

November 1777 – Washington, Arnold and Carleton go into winter encampments at Valley Forge, White Plains and Trois-Riveris respectively.

March 10, 1778 – France allies with the United States causing Britain to declare war.

April 21, 1778 – Briggs turns back Admiral Barrington’s assault on Jamaica at the Battle of Bajo Nuevo.

April 1778 – French naval squadrons begin arriving in the Caribbean.

April 1778 – Carleton defeats Campbell at the Battle of Bethierville.

May 1778 – Carleton lays siege to Montreal.

May 19, 1778 – Washington occupies Philadelphia as Howe’s troops retreat to New York.

June 1778 – A Franco-American naval force takes St. Vincent from the British.

July 1778 – The British repulse a French attack on Barbados.

July 1778 – Spain allies with the United States and declares war on Britain.

July 3, 1778 – The Wyoming Massacre sees an Anglo-Iroquois force massacre several hundred American militiamen.

July 4, 1778 – George Rogers Clark takes the frontier town of Kaskaskia.

July 11, 1778 – French Admiral d’Estaing defeats the Royal Navy squadron off New York at the Battle of Sandy Hook eliminating any support for Howe’s army.

July 13, 1778 – Howe surrenders New York to Washington and Arnold.

August 1778 – Spanish forces lay siege to the British garrison at Gibraltar.

August 1778 – With his supply lines to New York cut, Campbell surrenders Montreal to Carleton. Three of the four Royal North American armies have surrendered at this point.

October 1778 – Spanish forces under Bernardo de Galvez take Baton Rouge and invade British West Florida.

October 1778 – The first French soldiers land in Virginia to join Washington’s army.

October 19, 1778 – British forces take the French Indian port of Pondicherry.

November 1778 – Prime Minister Lord Frederick North’s government collapses resulting in the Prime Ministry of the Marquess of Rockingham.

November 1778 – Royal Navy forces defeat Spanish naval forces at the Battle of Las Galeras.

December 1, 1778 – British forces take Santo Domingo in a surprise attack.

January 1779 – A British attack on French St. Lucia is repulsed.

February 1779 – Spanish forces from Mexico take British Honduras [Belize], the Moskito Coast [coastal Honduras and Nicaragua] and the Bay Islands [Roatan, etc.]

February 1779 – Franco-American troops push into British occupied South Carolina.

March 1779 – British forces occupying Santo Domingo defeat Spanish militia forces at the Battle of La Guayiga.

March 1779 – British forces take the French Indian port of Mahe. This sparks the 2nd Anglo-Mysore War when Hyder Ali, ruler of Mysore and ally to France, declares war.

April 1779 – A Franco-American fleet retakes Grenada.

July 9, 1779 – Washington and the Marquis de Lafayette defeat the British under Clinton at the Battle of Columbia.

July 26, 1779 – Washington and Lafayette force decisively defeat Howe’s army at the Battle of Brownsborough.

July 28, 1779 – Washington and Lafayette force the surrender of Howe’s army between Augusta and Savannah.

August 2, 1779 – Washington and Lafayette take Savannah, ending the British threat to the American Main.

August 1779 – A Franco-American fleet repulses a British attack on Martinique.

December 31, 1779 – The Affair of Fielding and Bylant off the British coast instigates the 4th Anglo-Dutch War.


February 1780 – A Spanish fleet repulses a British attempt to relieve the siege of Gibraltar.

March 1780 – Spanish forces take the port of Minorca.

April 1780 – A Franco-Spanish fleet seizes Bermuda.

May 1780 – Arnold and Clark invade Ohio Country from Fort Nashborough in support of a Carleton-led offensive against Fort Detroit.

May 2, 1780 – Admiral Hood relieves the siege of Gibraltar with his decisive defeat of the Spanish at the Battle of the Pillars off the coast of Morocco.

June 1780 – Franco-American forces retake Barbados, finally expelling the British from the Windward Islands. British control in North America is limited to Santo Domingo, Tobago, the Floridas and the Bahamas.

July 1780 – Hyder Ali invades the British Carnatic region with a force of 80,000.

September 10, 1780 – Hyder Ali’s son, Tipu Sultan, deals the British East India Company its worst loss to that point in its history at the 1st Battle of Pollilur

October 9, 1780 – Carleton takes Fort Detroit

October 10-16, 1780 – The Great Hurricane ravages the Lesser Antilles, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, the Bahamas, and Bermuda leading to devastating naval losses and over 20,000 deaths. It is the deadliest Atlantic storm in recorded history.

November 29, 1780 – Maria Theresa of Austria dies, and her Habsburg dominions pass to her ambitious son, Joseph II, who has already been Holy Roman Emperor since 1765.

January 1781 – Galvez takes Pensacola, securing West Florida for the Spanish.

February 9, 1781 – French forces successfully invade and take the channel island of Jersey.

June 1781 – Franco-American forces attack Hudson Bay Company holdings in the extreme north of Canada.

July 1, 1781 – British East India Company forces defeat a numerically superior force under Hyder Ali at the Battle of Porto Novo. 

July 19, 1781 – A British attempt to retake Jersey fails.

July 26, 1781 – The Marquess of Rockingham tenders his resignation to George III. William Petty, the 2nd Earl of Shelburne, becomes the next Prime Minister.

August 27, 1781 – British East India Company forces defeat Hyder Ali at the 2nd Battle of Pollilur.

September 27, 1781 – British East India Company forces defeat Hyder Ali at the Battle of Battle of Sholinghur, effectivley expelling the Indians from the Carnatic region.

November 11, 1781 – British forces take the Dutch Indian port of Negapatam.

January 10, 1782 – The United States and the British conclude the Treaty of Paris, ending the American Revolutionary War, granting independence to the colonies and relinquishing British claims on all North American territory except Tobago and Bermuda. Additional treaties between Britain, France, Spain and the Dutch Republic conclude the war shortly after with news reaching the Indian theater by the end of the year.

April 2, 1783 – A coalition of Lord Frederick North and Charles James Fox ousts William Petty, the Earl of Shelburne, from the prime ministership. William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, becomes British Prime Minister. His ministry collapse in less than a year.

December 19, 1783 – William Pitt the Younger becomes the British Prime Minister.

April 1784 – The Articles Congress passes a Land Ordinance to resolve organizational issues over the Ohio Valley Territories. It declares that new states should be created from the ceded land, those states would have the same status as the original state and they would have a Republican form of government. Subsequent ordinances would prohibit slavery in the region, organize the land in square units with land designated for education, and create a system of surveys.

August 13, 1784 – The India Act of 1784 reforms many key institutions within the British East India Company. This allows Pitt the Younger to remove John Shore from the position of Governor-General and reappoint William Hastings who would reinvigorate British ambitions in the region.

May 1785 – Nova Scotia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Connecticut pool resources to create the New England Revenue Cutter Service, a coastal and merchant patrol that is the forerunner to the U.S. Coast Guard.

March 1786 – Britain begins sending freed slaves and poor blacks, most having relocated after the American Revolutionary War to London, to Sierra Leone.

August 11, 1786 – Captain Francis Light acquires the island of Penang from the Sultan of Kedah on behalf of the British East India Company, renaming it Prince of Wales Island in honor of the heir to the British throne.

August 17, 1786 – The paternal nephew of Frederick the Great, Frederick William, becomes King of Prussia, as Frederick William II.

August 31, 1786 – Daniel Shays, a Massachusetts farmer and Revolutionary War veteran, instigates a rebellion over military payment and unpaid debts. A few skirmishes occur at courthouses and at the Springfield Armory but the rebellion collapses in the spring of 1787.

September 11-14, 1786 – Delegates meet at the Annapolis Convention to discuss strengthening the Articles of Confederation. They agree to work towards a second meeting the following year, which would evolve into the Philadelphia Convention.

April 1787 – The Dominica Crisis occurs when correspondence comes to light indicating several prominent Dominican families sought to begin discussion to return Dominica to French control.

November 1787 – The first delegations begin arriving in Philadelphia for the convention that will ultimately draft and adopt the 1788 Constitution.

December 10, 1787 – The Philadelphia Convention officially begins

January 9, 1788 – A quorum is achieved allowing work to begin at the Philadelphia Convention.

May 9, 1788 – The Order of Freedom adopts a Charter to govern their business and mission.

May 18, 1788 – The Philadelphia Convention closes with the formal adoption the drafted 1788 Constitution and submission to the states for ratification.

May 27, 1788 – The first of the Anti-Federalist Papers is published in opposition to the 1788 Constitution.

August 2, 1788 – Federalist No. 1 is published in support of the proposed 1788 Constitution.

August 7, 1788 – Delaware becomes the first state to ratify the 1788 Constitution.

December 14, 1788 – King Charles III of Spain dies, and is succeeded by his son Charles IV.

May 5, 1789 – The Estates General convenes in France for the first time since 1614 to resolve an ongoing financial crisis, sparked largely due to debts incurred from French support of the American Revolution.

May 28, 1789 – The Leeward Islands ratifies the 1788 Constitution, the 17th state and thus formally allowing the Constitution to take effect.

June 20, 1789 – Members of the French “Third Estate” swear the Tennis Court Oath agreeing not to separate until they have given France a constitution.

July 9, 1789 – The French representatives create the National Constituent Assembly to replace the ancient Estates General.

July 14, 1789 – Mobs in Paris storm the Bastille, the ancient royal prison.

August 27, 1789 – The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen is adopted in France, sweeping away many of the ancient rights of the nobility and clergy.

September 3, 1789 – Articles Congress formally certified that the new constitution had been duly ratified and sets the date for elections.

December 1, 1789 – Voting begins for the elected positions to fill the 1st Congress under the 1788 Constitution.


February 8, 1790 – The Electoral College elected George Washington as the United States’ first president and John Adams as the first Vice President.

March 3, 1790 – The final session of the Congress under the Articles of Confederation convenes and gavels out sine die.

March 5, 1790 – The first meeting of the 1st Congress of the United States convenes under the 1788 Constitution.

March 8, 1790 – The French National Assembly decrees that each colony could formulate its own wishes regarding the future of its internal status. This leads to a constitutional convention in the colony of St. Domingue which becomes the prelude to the Haitian Revolution.

May 1, 1790 – George Washington is sworn in as the 1st President of the United States.

May 29, 1790 – Rhode Island becomes the final state to ratify the 1788 Constitution.

September 1790 – The Congress begins to take up the amendments that will becomes the Bill of Rights.

September 1790 – Congress passes the Judiciary Act of 1790 which set the number of supreme court justices, establishing the attorney general, establishes jurisdiction and numerous judicial districts.

September 30, 1790 – Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor starts to rule.

October 1790 – Royalists scatter the constitutional convention occurring in St. Domingue.

October 6, 1790 – Mobs force Louis XVI to move from Versailles to Paris.

October 7, 1790 – Josiah Harmar’s Ohio Valley Indian War campaign begins. It occurs throughout the fall against the Shawnee and Miami with mixed results.

October 29, 1790 – The Congress approves the final articles of the Bill of Rights to be sent to the states for ratification.

March 4, 1791 – Vermont becomes the 33rd state to join the United States.

June 20, 1791 – Louis XVI and his family attempt the Flight to Varennes in an effort to escape France. This marks the end of the kings power in France.

August 24, 1791 – The slave meeting at Bois Caïman, allegedly in the middle of a hurricane, sparks the beginning of the massed slave revolt in St. Domingue.

August 27, 1791 – Third Anglo-Mysore War – Battle of Tellicherry off the south-west coast of India.

September 1791 – The National Constituent Assembly in France adopts, and the king accepts, a new constitution.

September 21, 1791 – The colonial assembly on St. Domigue votes to give political rights to free blacks and mullatos.

October 1791 – Arthur St. Clair leads a second expedition into the Ohio Valley to engage hostile indian forces.

November 3, 1791 – A combined force of Miamis, Shawnees and Delawares deal a disastrous defeat to St. Clair’s force.

February 9, 1792 – With Jamaica’s ratification of articles 3-15, those articles become formally ratified as amendments 1 through 13 of the 1788 Constitution thus becoming the Bill of Rights.

March 1792 – Congress establishes the 1st Bank of the United States.

March 1, 1792 – Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, takes office.

April 20, 1792 – France declares war on Austria marking the start of the War of the First Coalition and the larger French Revolutionary Wars.

June 1, 1792 – Kentucky becomes the 34th state to join the United States.

July 1792 – Congress passes a series of naval bonds which greatly expands the United States navy.

July 25, 1792 – The Holy Roman General Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, issues the “Brunswick Proclamation” which declares the army’s intent to restore Louis XVI to absolute power and treat any opposition as rebels to be put to death. Instead of inspiring fear, the French revolutionaries see the king and nobility as traitors to France.

August 1792 – A revolt breaks out in the deeply religious Vendee in response to the Assembly’s decision to exile priests that refuse to swear an oath to France to Guiana.

September 20, 1792 – French Revolutionary armies check the invading forces of the Duke of Brunswick at the Battle of Valmy. The same day the National Constituent Assembly reforms itself into the National Convention.

September 21, 1792 – The National Convention formally abolishes the French monarchy.

January 21, 1793 – Louis XVI is executed by guillotine.

January 23, 1791 – Prussia and Russia sign a treaty laying out the Second Partition of Poland.

February 1, 1793 – France declares war on Great Britain and the Dutch Republic.

March 7, 1793 – France declares war on Spain.

April 5, 1793 – General Charles-François du Périer Dumouriez, the hero of Valmy, flees to the Austrian camp after being declared outside the law by the revolutionary government.

April 6, 1793 – The Committee of Public Safety is established marking the beginning of the Reign of Terror.

April 22, 1793 – George Washington declares the United States neutral in the ongoing French Revolutionary Wars.

June 24, 1793 – Ratification of new 1793 Constitution by the National Convention.

July 27, 1793 – Robespierre elected to the Committee of Public Safety.

August 22, 1793 – Robespierre is elected the president of the Convention.

August 23, 1793 – Levée en masse voted by the Convention. All able-bodied non-married men between ages 18 and 25 are required to serve in the army.

September 1793 – British and Spanish forces invade St. Domingue.

September 1793 – Congress passes the Distillers Act imposing an excise tax on spirits, namely rum and whiskey. The deeply unpopular tax will spark revolts over the years.

October 16, 1793 – Marie-Antoinette is convicted and guillotined.

December 19, 1793 – Withdrawal of the British from Toulon, following a successful military operation conceived and led by a young artillery officer, Napoléon Bonaparte.

November 1793 – Washington unanimously wins a second term as president.

February 4, 1794 – The Convention votes to abolish slavery in French colonies. This also confirms an earlier abolition measure passed on St. Domingue intended to bring the massed slave revolt under control.

February 6, 1794 – Napoleon Bonaparte is promoted to general for his role in driving the British from Toulon.

April 1794 – Congress combines the various state coast guard squadrons into a nationalized US Revenue Cutter Service.

May 1794 – The slave revolt general, Toussaint L’ouverture, turns on his Spanish allies and drives them out of St. Domginue.

June 20, 1794 – A British fleet captures French Guadeloupe.

June 30, 1794 – General “Mad” Anthony Wayne begins a third expedition against the Ohio Valley indians.

July 11, 1794 – A British fleet captures French St. Lucia.

July 28, 1794 – Robespierre is arrested and executed by the Convention, ending the worst of the Reign of Terror.

August 2, 1794 – French forces at Martinique defeat British invaders.

August 20, 1794 – Wayne defeats a force of Shawnee and Delaware indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. This victory leads to several treaties in 1795 and the pacification of much of the Ohio Valley region east of Indiana and south of Michigan.

November 1794 – Congress adopts the 14th Amendment which clarifies provisions around sovereign immunity.

January 19, 1795 – French forces take Amsterdam, collapsing the Dutch Republic. The new “Batavian Republic” will be declared later in the year.

May 1795 – France and Prussia conclude a peace treaty, ceding the west bank of the Rhine to France.

June 23, 1795 – A combined British/Royalist force lands in western France and marches towards Paris sparking royalist uprisings and insurrections across France and Paris.

July 1795 – France and Spain conclude a peace treaty returning European borders to the status quo ante bellum but ceding Santo Domingo to France. France never enforces the seizure of Hispaniola.

August 22, 1795 –  Constitution of the Year III, the new Constitution, is adopted by the Convention. This creates the Directorie.

October 4-5, 1795 – A royalist uprising across Paris is put down, largely thanks to the artillery tactics of Napoleon. His actions in defense of Paris land him command of the Armee d’Italie.

October 26, 1795 – France and Britain conclude peace, returning the Indian ports and purchasing Guadeloupe and St. Lucia.

October 27, 1795 – Spain and the US agree to the Treaty of San Lorenzo which resolves the lingering border dispute between Spanish claims in West Florida and US claims in Georgia, open the Mississippi River to navigation, and establishes “friendship between the United States and Spain”.

November 1795 – A British fleet seizes the Dutch Antilles.

February 2, 1796 – The last British forces withdraw from St. Domingue.

February 29, 1796 – Jay’s Treaty becomes effective resolving lingering disputes between the U.S. and Britain but angering republicans and alienating France.

March 1796 – The Rum and Whiskey Revolt requires massive militia response and sees Washington sail to the Caribbean to put down tax rebellions occurring in response to the Distillers Act.

March 1796 – Toussiant L’ouverture is appointed Lt. Governor of St. Domingue.

April 10, 1796 – Napoleon begins his Italian campaign.

May 15, 1796 – Peace if concluded between France and Savoy with King Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia ceding Savoy and Nice while retaining Sardinia.

June 1796 – US forces begin establishing a series of forts across the Great Lakes region to facilitate trade and settlement across the region.

July 1796 – The withdraw of the French appointed governor of St. Domingue leaves Toussaint L’ouverture in virtual control of the colony.

July 1796 – Spanish King Charles IV appoints the triumvirate of the Count of Floridablanca, Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, and the young Crown Prince Ferdinand to lead Spain. Over the next few years they instigate many reforms, notably to the Spanish military and signing the Anglo-Spanish Alliance, but also alienate leaders in Aragon and Catalonia.

July 1796 – French armies invade the Germanies.

August 1796 – Elections occur in St. Domingue to send deputies to Paris.

October 1796 – The Cisalpine Republic is declared from northern Italian territories conquered by Napoleon.

November 15-17, 1796 – Napoleon decisively defeats the Austrians at the Battle of Arcole.

January 26, 1797 – Austria, Prussia and Russia sign a treat marking the third, and final, partition of Poland.

March 1797 – The Royal Navy captured the administrative capital of the Dutch East Indies at Batavia on the island of Java.

April 1797 – France and Austrian begin to negotiate peace. Austria gives up its claim to the Austrian Netherlands while a secret agreement divides the territories of Venice between Austria and France.

May 10, 1797 – A national referendum on a proposed constitution in the Batavian Republic fails.

October 1797 – The XYZ Affair, in which the French foreign minister demanded signficant bribes and loans to negotiate peace over shipping rights with the U.S., becomes known leading to demands for war in America.

October 1797 – Gabriel Marie Joseph, Comte d’Hédouville arrives in St. Domingue to take governorship of the island to the chagrin of Lt. Gov. L’Ouverture.

November 1797 – The “unity ticket” of John Adams and William Briggs wins election as U.S. President and Vice President in the face of war with France.

November 16, 1797 – The Prussian heir apparent, Frederick William, becomes King of Prussia as Fredrick William III.

December 9, 1797 – The United States declares war on France.

January 1798 – French forces backing Dutch radicals lead a coup which place them in control of the Batavian government.

January 1798 – Newfoundland militia seize the French colony of St. Pierre and Miquelon off their coast.

April 1798 – A national vote leads to the adoption of the French/radical constitution in the Batavian Republic.

March 1798 – The U.S. Navy seizes the French island of Martinique.

April 1798 – The U.S. Navy seize the Batavian/French Leeward Islands of Saint Eustatius, Saba and French, St. Barthelemy, and Saint Martin.

June 1798 – A Venetian fleet with French troops attacks and takes the island of Malta by surprise. The Venetian fleet quickly departs for Tunis. Fifteen days after the initial assault, a Royal Navy fleet under Horatio Nelson lays siege to the entrenched French soldiers on Malta. Other Italian fleets head for Tunis. A Franco-Genoese fleet, carrying Napoleon’s Armee d’Orient, breaks the blockade of Toulon and heads for Tunis.

July 1798 – Napoleon’s forces land and take Alexandria.

July 8, 1798 – The Palmhook Meeting of the Order of Freedom votes to influence the successful annexation of Haiti into statehood on the condition that the technology also be used to “civilize” the potential citizens.

July 21, 1798 – France defeats Mamluk Egyptian forces at the Battle of the Pyramids allowing the French to occupy Cairo.

July 24, 1798 – Britain and France go back to war.

August 1798 – Spain declares war on France.

August 23, 1798 – Matthew Morris, envoy from U.S. President John Adams, arrives in St. Domingue with a secret message to L’Ouverture proposing American support of Haitian independence from France on the condition of annexation as a full state.

September 1798 – Governor-General Anne Joseph Hippolyte de Maurès, Comte de Malartic, French Governor at Port Louis, issues the Malartic Proclamation seeking volunteers to assist Tipu Sultan in conjunction with Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt. In India, this causes Sir Arthur Wellesley to go to war with Mysore.

September 1798 – Russia, Austria, Portugal, and the Two Sicilies declare war on France.

September 1798 – A British fleet under Admiral Sir John Orde is crushed by the French fleet anchored off of Alexandria at the First Battle of the Nile.

September 1798 – The Adams Administration and the Federalist Congress create the various Alien and Sedition Acts that greatly curb civil liberties in the name of security.

September 1798 – An American squadron under Commodore Thomas Truxton takes the port city of Cayenne, securing French Guiana for the United States.

October 17, 1798 – A Spanish-Neapolitan fleet scatters the damaged French fleet at the Second Battle of the Nile.

October 19, 1798 – L’Ouverture accepts Adams proposal of independence and annexation for Haiti into the U.S.

October 1798 – The U.S. Supreme Court issues a ruling in Grenada v. St. Vincent which establishes the boundary line in the Grenadines Archipelago between Savan Island and Canouan. It is the first exercise of original jurisdiction in matters of controversy between states and lays out the Grenadines Test, a multi-factor test that demonstrates that the court will make binding territorial decisions when necessary.

October 22, 1798 – Napoleon puts down a massive revolt in Cairo.

October 23, 1798 – Commodore Truxton’s fleet arrives at Port Louis in the French Mascarene Islands. A negotiated settlement with the French Governor lands the U.S. control of the distant French Indian Ocean islands.

January 1799 – Napoleon invades Ottoman Syria to counter an approaching Ottoman force.

January 19, 1799 – Commodore Truxton’s fleet arrives at the French Indian port city of Mahe. The Battle of Mahe ends in an American victory over French naval forces resulting in the surrender of the city. In the following months, Truxton secures the surrender of the rest of French India. This battle effective ends the French overseas empire (save for scattered influence in Africa and Napoleonic Egypt).

January 27, 1799 – The 1st Haitian Assembly votes to declare independence from France.

February 1799 – Napoleon takes Gaza.

February 3, 1799 – L’Ouverture announces his intention to seek annexation into the United States for Haiti.

February 19, 1799 – Haitian forces defeat the last pro-Riguard hold outs at the Battle of Jacmel ending the worst of the fighting of the Haitian Revolution and ending the civil war portion of the conflict.

February 24, 1799 – The Haitian Assembly votes to send a proposal of annexation to the United States.

March 1799 – Napoleon takes Jaffa.

March 1799 – French troops invade Switzerland and proclaim the “Helvetic Republic”.

April 1799 – An Austrian victory in northern Italy at the Battle of Magnano secures much of Lombardy for the Coalition.

April 1799 – French General Duphot defeats an Italian army at the Battle of  Orvieto and seizes Rome. The Pope flees to Sardinia causing Duphot to proclaim the Roman Republic made from the former Papal States.

April 20, 1799 – Haitian forces expel the last French forces from Haiti at the Battle of Pic le Selle.

April 21, 1799 – Vice President William Briggs publishes Concerning the Events in Hayti and Of the Future of the United States in favor of annexation. It secures Federalist support in the Caribbean for an affirmative annexation vote but destroys the long-term prospects of the Federalists in the region.

May 1799 – Napoleon defeats Ottoman forces and takes the city of Acre after a hard fought battle. His supply lines stretched, he opts to return to Egypt.

May 1799 – Louis Lazare Hoche leads a French army into Spain.

May 4, 1799 – Battle of Seringapatam: Tipu Sultan is defeated and killed by the British. This marks the end of the 4th Anglo-Mysore War sparked by the possibility of a Franco-Mysorean Alliance via Egypt. This defeat leads to the Partition of Mysore and the restoration of the Wodeyar Dynasty.

June 1799 – The “Aragonese Betryal” at the Battle of Huesca. Half of Spain’s army defects to the French who proclaim the Aragonese and Catalonian Republics shortly after.

June 1799 – Nelson takes Malta.

June 20, 1799 – Duphot defeats a Neapolitan army and seizes Naples the next day.

July 1799 – U.S. and Haitian forces defeat a French expedition at the Battle of Les Cayes, the last battle of the Haitian Revolution which ultimately secures Haiti’s independence from France.

July 25, 1799 – Napoleon defeats a second Ottoman army after their amphibious landing at the Battle of Aboukir.

August 1799 – Pitt the Younger resigns as British Prime Minister. He is replaced by  William Cavendish-Bentinck, the 3rd Duke of Portland.

August 1799 – Napoleon quietly departs Egypt for France. Roughly 10,000 French troops remain to occupy Egypt.

August 27, 1799 – An Anglo-Russian invasion force lands in Holland. They will have mixed results and ultimately are beaten but manage to withdraw in November.

September 1799 – After a summer of back and forth warfare, the French army decisively defeats an Austro-Russian army at the Second Battle of Zurich.

October 1799 – Duphot and the great Russian general Suvorov engage several times in northern Italy with inconclusive results. An Austrian army lays siege to Duphot’s army at Mantua allowing Suvorov to attempt an invasion of Germany via Switzerland. Once in Switzerland he learns of the Battle of Zurich and turns his army towards Austria.

November 1799 –  Spanish forces check the French advance into Spain at the Battle of Alcañiz but cannot prevent an ordered Franco-Aragonese withdraw.

November 8, 1799 – The Coup of 18 Brumaire leads to the overthrow of the Directorie and the establishment of the Consulate with Napoleon as First Consul.

December 1799 – The last battalions of Suvorov’s army reach Austria after their successful retreat across the Alps.

December 25, 1799 – A new French constitution is enacted which creates the Consulate and gives the First Consul (Napoleon Bonaparte) widespread powers.


January 9, 1800 – France, Haiti and the United States conclude the Treaty of Lisbon which ends the Franco-American War and the Haitian Revolution. France cedes her overseas empire to the United States and France recognizes Haitian independence.

February 7, 1800 – A national plebiscite confirms Napoleon as First Consul of France.

February 8, 1800 – General Pierre Augereau and his French forces defeat a Spanish army at the Battle of San Sebastian which allows for the formation of the Basque Republic.

March 4, 1800 – The U.S. Congress votes to accept Haiti’s proposal of annexation.

March 14, 1800 – Cardinal Barnaba Chiaramonti succeeds Pius VI as Pius VII, the 251st pope. He is crowned on March 21, in Venice.

January 31, 1801 – Adams appoints John Marshall as SCOTUS Chief Justice as part of his larger court packing in the Midnight Judges.

March 8, 1801 – George Washington dies at Mount Vernon.

March 10, 1801 – Guy Carleton succeeds Washington as the new President of the Order of Freedom.

April 1800 – France, the Batavian Republic and Britain sign the Treaty of London. Britain gains Dutch Guyana and the Antilles, the Cape Colony, the Dutch East Indies, Ceylon, Dutch India not designated, and the Gold Coast. France retained its West African colonies while Amsterdam retained the designated Indian ports of Bharuch, Cannanore, Trincomalee, Sadras, Balasore, Syriam and the Japanese lodge at Dejima. France also recognized the Kingdom of Corsica and both parties agreed to a free “Duchy of Malta” which would be in personal union with the Neapolitan Bourbons.

April 3, 1800 – Haiti officially becomes a U.S. state.

May 1800 – Napoleon crosses the Alps and enters northern Italy to engage the Austrian armies operating in the region and regain the initiative for France.

June 12, 1800 – Napoleon defeats a major Austrian army at the Battle of Casteggio which secures Piedmont and Lombardy for France.

August 3, 1800 – Battle of Coslada allows French troops to seize Madrid.

August 22, 1800 – Spanish Crown Prince Ferdinand escapes Spain and flees to Cuba.

November 4, 1800 – Spanish Crown Prince Ferdinand arrives in Havana.

December 3, 1800 – French defeat Austro-Germans at the Battle of Hohenlinden. This effectively ends the lingering Franco-Austrian conflict and the War of the Second Coalition.

December 18, 1800 – Spanish Crown Prince Ferdinand arrives in Mexico City.

March 1801 – Treaty of Zaragoza ends the fighting in Spain, confirms the partition, divides the empire, returns Louisiana to France, gives the Philippines to France and enforces the transfer of Santo Domingo.

  • Partition of Spain into the Kingdom of Castile, the Republic of Aragon, the Basque Republic and the Duchy of Galicia.
  • Charles IV retains the Castilian throne but remains prisoner in Aragon.
  • Castile given North American colonies
  • Aragon gains South America;
  • Portugal gains Galicia, Uruguay, and the Canary Islands.

March 23, 1801 – Paul I is assassinated in Russia. Alexander I takes the throne.

September 1801 – The U.S. Congress formally creates the new state of the Mascarene Islands from annexed territory comprising the former French islands of Île Bourbon (Reunion), Isle de France (Mauritius), Île Rodrigues (Rodrigues) and the Séchelles (Seychelles). The Congress also formally created “U.S. Territories of India” comprising the annexed ports of Mahé, Yanaon, Karikal, Pondichéry and Chandernagore. 

November 1801 – Thomas Jefferson defeats John Adams to become the third U.S. President.

December 1801 – The U.S. Congress formally creates the new states of “Martinique and the New Antilles” and “Guiana” while the Leeward Islands agrees to take on the former Batavian Dutch islands of St. Eustacius, Saba and southern St. Martin.

May 1802 – U.S. envoys secure the purchase of New Orleans, Santo Domingo and the Louisiana Territory for $18 million. Napoleon ensures that the purchase occurs over five years and is contingent on a Franco-American alliance. The agreement becomes known as the Louisiana Bargain.

October 1802 – In an internal dispute, the Holkar clan, led by Yashwantrao Holkar, defeats a combined Scindia/Peshwa army at the Battle of Poona, which forces the Peshwa of the Maratha Empire, Baji Rao II, to seek British protection.

December 1802 – The Maratha Peshwa, Baji Rao II, concludes a treaty with the British East India Company, the Treaty of Bassein, that provides British protection in exchange for the Peshwa’s client status. This sparks the Second Anglo-Maratha War.

September 11, 1803 – A British force under Lt. Gen. James Stevenson takes Delhi as part of the Second Anglo-Maratha War.

September 25, 1803 – A Maratha army forces Lord Gerard Lake and his British soldiers to retreat to Pune after the Battle of Assaye.

October 1803 – Stevenson, rushing to head south to relieve Lake, captures the key mountain fort of Asirgarh.

November 9, 1803 – The Siege of Pune begins as Maratha forces surround the city.

November 18, 1803 – A combined British force under the joint command of Lord Lake and Lt. Gen. Stevenson defeat the Maratha army besieging Pune at the Battle of Shirur. This effectively eliminate the threat of the Bhonsale and Scinidia clans from the war.

January 1804 – The Holkar Clan joins the Second Anglo-Maratha War in response to the defeat of the Bhonsales and the Scindias.

October 1804 – The Holkars take Delhi from the British.

January 3, 1805 – The British in India defeat the Holkars at the Battle of Pandhana.

May 1805 – In a diplomatic victory, the Sikh Empire under Maharaja Ranjit Singh signs a pact with the British East India Company, ensuring they will not come to the aid of the reeling Maratha Empire. Shortly after the Holkar sue for peace, ending the Second Anglo-Maratha War.