Empire of Liberty: State of the World – Nov. 1801

This is the state of the world in November of 1801 to the best of my ability to depict it. This map also reflects the 1801 U.S. Presidential election, the first competitive contest between two political factions (following the two unanimous elections of Washington and the Adams-Briggs unity ticket) with the first non-American state casting electoral votes.

The noticeable changes are as follows:

The Expanded United States

This map reflects the cumulative territorial gains of the United States in the time of the 2nd Continental Congress (thanks to the “diplomacy” of the Order), the victory over the British in the American Revolutionary War and the victory over Revolutionary France in the War of the Second Coalition. The United States is the dominant power in North America though, in 1801 it now shares territory on the continent with Castile and France. In addition to new states in Vermont, Tennessee and Kentucky the United States is organizing its territories to the west. North American U.S. territories (depicted in dark green) include the Southwest Territory, Northwest Territory, Upper Canada Territory and Rupert’s Land Territory. Also note the brand new states of Haiti and the Mascarene Islands (created in time to participate in the election) but the military territories of the French Leeward Islands and Martinique and French Guiana. Another note, in this timeline the United States conquered the Batavian Dutch and French Caribbean early in their war. One of those seized islands is St. Bart’s. In our timeline, France gave St. Bart’s to Sweden in 1784 in exchange for trading rights in the Swedish town of Gothenberg. In this timeline, due to the vast American take over of the British Caribbean, there is a premium placed on European ownership of Caribbean islands so France does not make that deal, hence their ownership beyond 1784.

The Southwest Territory is a district steaming from successful 1790’s negotiations between the US and Spain over the boundary of Spanish West Florida. Note that Georgia’s western boundary is still goes all the way to the Mississippi, a reflection of the tricky territorial and diplomatic situation between the Federal government, the indian tribes in the region (notably the Cherokee) and the corrupt Georgia legislature. This situation existed in our timeline and erupted with the Yazoo Land Scandal. We have not touched on that yet in this timeline’s narrative and it could be subject to change.

The Northwest Territory remains the same as our timeline. Consisting of the territory of the “Old Northwest”, it took up to the Civil War for this vast stretch of land to become populated and filled with new states. Something to note though, in our timeline’s 1800, Congress divided the Northwest Territory into “Indiana Territory” and a remainder of Northwest Territory. Indiana Territory consisted of land that includes modern Indiana, Illinois, western Michigan, the entire Upper Peninsula, Wisconsin and northeast Minnesota. Eastern Michigan and all of Ohio remained in the Northwest Territory with Ohio gaining statehood in 1803. Due to the distraction of a larger Franco-American War and other crises, the Northwest Territory remains untouched into this timeline’s Jefferson Administration.

Upper Canada Territory is a new creation of this timeline that corresponds to the western lands of the Quebec Province. In our timeline, one of the factors in sparking the American Revolution was the 1774 British reorganization of western territories to give the culturally-French province of Quebec all of the land between the Ohio River, the Mississippi River, modern Quebec and the drainage basin of the northern Great Lakes. Despite diplomacy and an actual American invasion of Quebec that captured Montreal and failed at the Battle of Quebec City, the citizens of British Quebec remained loyal. A key divergence in this timeline is the Order’s use of the technology to bring the Quebecois onto the side of the revolution. Post-war, Quebec still maintains its vast claims but, like most other American states, opts to cede these claims in exchange for a variety of bargains and concessions, usually regarding state debt and financing. Upper Canada Territory is a new territory comprising of the great lakes drainage basin to modern Quebec’s immediate west (beyond the Ottawa River, the traditional, and modern, frontier of western Quebec). This territory corresponds to a similar British province that London created after our timeline’s revolution when loyalists streamed into Canada.

Rupert’s Land Territory is the massive swathe of taiga and tundra this timeline’s United States inherited from the former Hudson’s Bay Company. Back in those days you could refers to the vast drainage basin of the Hudson Bay as either “Hudson Bay Company Land” or “Rupert’s Land”, named for the controlling company and its first governor, Prince Rupert of the Rhine, respectively. In this timeline, the young United States simply refers to this region as “Rupert’s Land Territory”. Note the convergence of the territorial borders of the Northwest Territory, Rupert’s Land Territory and Upper Canada Territory on the shore of western Lake Superior. That convergence marks the Grand Portage, a critical short overland portage route that “connects” the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence River system with the Pigeon River which allows access to the Nelson River and the vast interior network of rivers that crisscross interior Canada and spills into Hudson Bay.

French Louisiana and Santo Domingo

Per the latest update, we see the Partition of Spain, France taking back the Louisiana Territory and finally enforcing its claim to Santo Domingo (technically ceded by Spain after the War of the First Coalition but never enforced due to the Haitian Revolution). Keep in mind that this map depicts several months before the actual point of sale agreed upon by the Louisiana Bargain so New Orleans is still French.

Castilian Mexico, Caribbean and Central America

Per the Partition of Spain, the Spanish Empire is divided between France, the Kingdom of Castile and the Republic of Aragon. Castile takes control of former “New Spain” which itself included Mexico, Central America (but not Panama which was always a part of Spanish South America) and the Spanish Caribbean. Also note that historically the Spanish Philippines were far closer to Mexico than they were to Spain itself because all trade flowed from Manila to Acapulco, overland to Veracruz, and then from Veracruz to Spain. As part of the Partition, France takes direct control of the Philippines (which I’ll discuss below).

Also note the subdivisions of New Spain which is itself comprised of many various provinces, intendancies and kingdoms. But the whole of formerly Spanish North America is just organized under the Viceroyality of New Spain.

I have yet to post a chapter on the Latin American situation because there simply was not enough going on for me to have a full chapter. I hope to end that drought soon but also note a key development from the Partition of Spain: the Crown Prince Ferdinand fled Spain to Mexico so he is operating somewhere in New Spain during this transition.

Aragonese South America

New Spain was a vast territory that comprised all of Spanish North America but Spanish South America has a more complex administrative history. By 1801 there are three Viceroyalities in the region: New Granada, Peru, and Rio de la Plata. There were two “Captaincy-Generals”: Venezuela and Chile. There were several “presidencies”: Quito (roughly modern Ecuador) and Charcas (an area that roughly corresponds to the modern intersection of Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina). There are also dozens of provinces and disputed territories, especially on the border of Portuguese Brazil and Spanish South America.

Per the Partition of Spain, the former republics of Aragon and Catalonia are combined into an “Aragonese Republic” which also gains all of Spanish South America as its colonial empire. I have no idea how this set up will work or how it will impact the various Spanish royal offices that hold the empire together.

Expanded Portuguese Brazil

In our timeline, lingering disputes marred the border between Portuguese Brazil and Spanish South America and these disputes carried over into the modern states that revolted against the old empires. Modern Uruguay was at the center of these disputes but it took roughly a century for the modern borders, especially those located deep in the Amazon, to be finalized and several very blood wars were fought along the way. In this timeline, Napoleon is actively trying to keep Portugal happy to keep Britain sidelined and to do this he basically gives them a gift of territory they cannot refuse. In South America this means ceding disputed territory “on the right bank of the Uruguay” which specifically means Uruguay and Misiones provinces. I imagine there will be repercussions but I have yet to write a Latin America update.

The Partition of Spain

The 1801 Treaty of Zaragoza is the biggest territorial game changer in this timeline so far. In our timeline, Bourbon Spain went to war with France in the War of the First Coalition (locally called the War of the Pyrenees) and lost. As part of the peace, the Spanish Bourbons and French renewed their alliance and Spain got dragged into a series of disastrous wars against the allied powers that ultimately ended with Napoleon deposing the dysfunctional Bourbon rulers and placing his brother on the throne. This sparked the revolts in Latin America (the local rulers saw Joseph Bonaparte as illegitimate) and a nationalist war in Spain itself (also where we get the term “guerrilla warfare”). The “Spanish Ulcer” forced Napoleon to siphon hundreds of thousands of troops into a war he could never win and contributed greatly to his eventual downfall.

Things are quite different in this timeline though. The expanded American Revolution strains British finances which allows the First Coalition to collapse earlier than our timeline. This gives Spain a few years of independence and peace, but also results in no Franco-Spanish Alliance. The reformist triumvirate also personally upsets Manuel Godoy who leads a pro-French revolt of Aragonese and Catalonian nobles against the Castilian triumvirate. This means disaster for Spain and its ultimate partition by France and Portugal.

French-Italian Client States

You might be getting a sneak peak here since the formal treaty conclusion of the Austro-French portion of the War of the Second Coalition has not yet been written. This should be no surprise though, like our timeline, France makes sweeping gains against Austrian control of northern Italy including the Piedmont, Lombardy (Cisalpine Rep.), Genoa (Ligurian Rep.), Tuscany and Parma. The big difference is the expanded scope of French control thanks to Duphot’s efforts (he was assassinated in our timeline) which includes the Roman Republic. Note the Kingdom of Corsica under the control of the British monarchy, a left over from the War of the First Coalition. Also note that Malta is under Neapolitan Bourbon control per agreements between France and Britain.

The Holy Roman Empire

Not much change here from our timeline. As you can see the HRE still dominates Germany with the two leading powers being Austria and Prussia. The yellow outline in Germany depicts the formal boundaries of the HRE.

The Partition of Poland

Like our timeline, the three partitions of Poland occur on schedule with Russia, Prussia and Austria devouring the old Polish-Lithuania Commonwealth.

French Egypt

In our timeline, the French invasion force in Egypt lingered until they were defeated and removed by the British in 1801. The earlier exit of the British from the War of the Second Coalition opens the Mediterranean Sea to the French navy and allows successful reinforcement and resupply of the French army still stationed there.

West Africa and Slavery

I haven’t touched much on Africa in this timeline for the same reason I haven’t much discussed East Asia or Latin America, I just don’t think the butterfly effect from the initial divergence point in 1775 will have impacted much of those regions. However a major change has occurred that will have an impact on the region even if you cannot see it on the map and that is the continuation of the slave trade into the 19th century. In 1807 the United States and the British abolished the slave trade. While we are not yet to 1807 in this timeline, it is pretty safe to say that the economics and politics of the United States will likely push that abolition date back. I’m not certain about Britain or the other European powers. This means a continued forced exodus of people from the region and the continuation of slave-economy empires and regional powers. Even if this reality is not reflected on a map, it is occurring and we will get to this in due time.

British Cape Colony

The earlier British take over of the Dutch Cape Colony is probably the biggest timeline change in subsaharan Africa. But even then it isn’t much since Britain largely occupied the territory throughout the Napoleonic Wars in our timeline.

Early Colonial East Africa

Like the rest of subsaharan Africa there is not much to report here. Portuguese influence continues in Mozambique (as it is doing in Angola/Congo) but the other main power is Omani Zanzaibar whose coastal trading empire dominated the East African coast. Madagascar and some of the East African islands remain uncolonized but we can also see the U.S. acquisition of the Mascarene Islands which includes Reunion, Rodriques, Mauritius and the Seychelles. Also note British influence in the region with their control of the Chagos Islands and the Maldives which mirrors their naval interest around this time in our timeline.

Arabia and the House of Saud

Like our timeline, the four powers of the Arabian Peninsula are the House of Saud, the Yemeni tribes, the Sultan of Oman, and the Ottoman Empire. Persia is on the outside looking in but, unlike our timeline, so is France.

Anglo-Maratha India

Like our timeline, India remains contested between ascendant British interests and the native Maratha Empire. In between there is some other imperial holdouts, notably Portuguese Goa and the tiny American ports. Most of the independent states are in the northwest, led by the Sikhs, and the northeast between Burma and Bengal.

The “British” East Indies

The “gift” of the Dutch Empire is easily the biggest change thus far in Asia and the map reflect this. I’ve done the best I can to reflect some of the more organized independent states in the region and the effective areas of British control. Keep in mind this map being in 1801 essentially reflects the “starting point” of the British empire in the region. The tremendous drain on military, diplomatic, financial and (especially) naval resources in the region is a primary reason for the lack of British intervention in Europe.

Southeast Asia and “French” Philippines

Southeast Asia has received little attention in this timeline so far because of the lag time in the butterfly effect. The biggest change here is the French takeover in the Philippines. Like the British efforts in the East Indies, the French are starting from square one to exert their control and interests.

Qing China, Korea, Japan and Oceania

Few changes here as well. Qing China is certainly trading with the new Euro-American powers but I don’t see too much in terms of the butterfly effect out here just yet, and that is especially true in isolationist Japan, the Korean vassal state and mostly the mostly unexplored Austro-Pacific.

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