Empire of Liberty: The War of the Second Coalition

Excerpt from Dr. Ernesto Guevera’s “A Brief History of War” Yale University Press, 1984 Military historians have some difficulty categorizing the Napoléonic Wars, often also referred to as the Coalitionary Wars. From the Peace of Westphalia through the Seven Years War the various conflicts over succession crises and imperialism, often described as “general wars” can … More Empire of Liberty: The War of the Second Coalition

Empire of Liberty: The XYZ Affair

Excerpt from Dr. Jack Bankston’s “The Founding Years”, University of New South Wales Press, 2017. Needless to say, Americans watched the French Revolution with great interest. Republicans and the majority of Americans wanted to see republican ideals translate to their old allies. The Francophone states were especially hopefully that the old country would embrace liberty. … More Empire of Liberty: The XYZ Affair

Empire of Liberty: Nobody Expects the Spanish Reformation

“For neither good nor evil can last for ever; and so it follows that as evil has lasted a long time, good must now be close at hand.”  -Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, Don Quixote Excerpt from Dr. Mark Gonzalez’ “The Great Transition of Europe”, University of Chicago Press, 1921 Chapter VIII: El Triunvirato In Madrid, the … More Empire of Liberty: Nobody Expects the Spanish Reformation

Empire of Liberty: The Fall of Pitt the Younger

“He was a good man, but could have been a hero had his predecessors not failed him.” -Lord Jack Russell Except from John Bell’s “Portraits of Leadership: Histories of the Leaders and Rulers of the Commonwealth, Oxford University Press, 1992. Throughout his tenure, Pitt always had to balance his government with the health of George … More Empire of Liberty: The Fall of Pitt the Younger