Empire of Liberty: Nobody Expects the Spanish Reformation

Excerpt from Dr. Mark Gonzalez’ “The Great Transition of Europe”, University of Chicago Press, 1921 Chapter VIII: El Triunvirato In Madrid, the losses to the French in the War of the First Coalition stung but were not devastating. Spanish ministers learned two hard lessons. First, Spain was not as prepared for war as they believed … More Empire of Liberty: Nobody Expects the Spanish Reformation

Empire of Liberty: The Fall of Pitt the Younger

Except from John Bell’s “Portraits of Leadership: Histories of the Leaders and Rulers of the Commonwealth, Oxford University Press, 1992. Throughout his tenure, Pitt always had to balance his government with the health of George III. In 1788, a mental illness incapacitated the king and threatened to force parliament to appoint a regent. If this … More Empire of Liberty: The Fall of Pitt the Younger