Empire of Liberty: Nobody Expects the Spanish Reformation

Excerpt from Dr. Mark Gonzalez’ “The Great Transition of Europe”, University of Chicago Press, 1921 Chapter VIII: El Triunvirato In Madrid, the losses to the French in the War of the First Coalition stung but were not devastating. Spanish ministers learned two hard lessons. First, Spain was not as prepared for war as they believed … More Empire of Liberty: Nobody Expects the Spanish Reformation

Empire of Liberty: The Fall of Pitt the Younger

Except from John Bell’s “Portraits of Leadership: Histories of the Leaders and Rulers of the Commonwealth, Oxford University Press, 1992. Throughout his tenure, Pitt always had to balance his government with the health of George III. In 1788, a mental illness incapacitated the king and threatened to force parliament to appoint a regent. If this … More Empire of Liberty: The Fall of Pitt the Younger

Empire of Liberty: The Rise of Pitt the Younger

Except from John Bell’s “Portraits of Leadership: Histories of the Leaders and Rulers of the Commonwealth, Oxford University Press, 1992. “Born as the second son to the former Prime Minister William Pitt the Elder, William Pitt the younger is remembered as a key player in British politics between the American Revolution and the rise of … More Empire of Liberty: The Rise of Pitt the Younger

Empire of Liberty: De Diefstal

Excerpt from Dr. Jonas de Bruijn’s “Holland: A History”, University of Amsterdam Press, 2017 “For decades it had been the Dutch Republic that pioneered new systems, economics and institutions within the often sclerotic societies of continental Europe. Amsterdam. Leiden, Rotterdam, Groningen and other localities had been leaders in religious and philosophic thought, colonization and mercantilism. … More Empire of Liberty: De Diefstal

Empire of Liberty: The Haitian Revolution

Excerpt from Konijeti Beevti’s “Years of Revolution: Boston to Bhārata”, Vij Publishing House, 1962 (translation by Earl Henderson). For nearly 200 years, the jewel of the French colonial empire was not Louisiana, Quebec or India but the colony of St. Domingue, which comprised the western half of the island of Hispaniola. In this territory, plantations … More Empire of Liberty: The Haitian Revolution

Empire of Liberty: The Directorie

Excerpt from Konijeti Beevti’s “Years of Revolution: Boston to Bhārata”, Vij Publishing House, 1962 (translation by Earl Henderson). North of Paris, in January of 1795, the revolutionary forces invaded Holland and many Dutchmen joined them in support. The Dutch Republic fell, the stadtholder fled to Britain and the revolutionaries proclaimed the Batavian Republic. The failure … More Empire of Liberty: The Directorie

Empire of Liberty: Le Roi Est Mort

Excerpt from Konijeti Beevti’s “Years of Revolution: Boston to Bhārata”, Vij Publishing House, 1962 (translation by Earl Henderson). As the constitution neared completion, the Assembly made drastic changes to make the king a figurehead. A riot between radical protesters and Lafayette’s National Guard dealt yet a further blow to the nobility and, this time, to … More Empire of Liberty: Le Roi Est Mort

Empire of Liberty: Vive Le Révolucion

Excerpt from Konijeti Beevti’s “Years of Revolution: Boston to Bhārata”, Vij Publishing House, 1962 (translation by Earl Henderson). Historians have debated ad nauseum about the causes of the French Revolution and such a wide-ranging debate is beyond the scope of this summative work. However, some degree of thorough examination is warranted. In short, causes of … More Empire of Liberty: Vive Le Révolucion

Empire of Liberty: The Presidency of George Washington

Excerpt from Dr. Jack Bankston’s “The Founding Years”, University of New South Wales Press, 2017. III. The Presidency of George Washington Washington’s assumption of office was far different from the inaugurations we know today. The country was much smaller, the government was virtually nonexistent and there was no precedent at any level. Washington’s salary alone … More Empire of Liberty: The Presidency of George Washington